The following list of questions must be considered in order to formulate a right understanding of Daniel 9:24-29 in relation to the debate between the preteristic (or, partial-preteristic) understanding and the futuristic understanding of the passage.
My understanding of Scripture is best described as "Covenant Theology" with a partial preterist interpretation of prophecy. But don't look up web sites for what I believe. I don't follow a "system."
Understanding - interpretation of Scripture requires understanding in the literal sense, bearing in mind Scripture is often clear statements, poetical, figurative, prophetic or for direct obedience. In all cases it has a context, so that we need to consider why it is written, how it applies to writer & immediate readers, & as general Scripture & Messianic Scripture. Also no Scripture stands alone - there are always related Scriptures.
24 Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy.
1. Toward whom is this prophetic utterance focused in its fulfillment?
The immediate understanding is "thy people & thy holy city" meaning the descendants of Abraham, aka "my people Israel" & Jerusalem. The first promise to Abram included blessing as a great nation & blessing for "all families on earth." ( Gen. 12:1-3 ) The prophecy cannot be exclusively intended for Israel, but as wide in scope as the promise to Abram.
Isaiah in his servant prophecies speaks of Messiah as "my servant Israel" and declares:
And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth. Isa. 49:6
Those prophecies include Isaiah 53 when Jesus as the suffering servant is revealed, & Isaiah 52, which introduces the suffering servant, says: all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God."
The aspects of Messiah's saving work were spelled out in Isaiah 53, & Gabriel & Daniel were aware of those Scriptures, as they are summarised in 9:24, as they were aware of Jeremiah & his 70 years. This saving work is to be completed in 70 weeks, which we understand as 70x7 years, corresponding to the 70 years exile just completed.
Notice God often refers to "my people Israel" with the covenant relationship "I will be your God, & you will be my people" which relationship persists into the NH&NE of Rev. 21. It is a covenant-redemption relationship.
2. What specific measurement of time do the “seventy weeks” represent?
We agree the 70 weeks represent 490 years, so we can expect the prophecy to be completed within that period, with all the weeks contiguous. However, as the prophecy was delivered about 2,500 years ago, there has to be a period AFTER the completion of the 70 weeks for the outworking of certain details.
3. Are the six-fold purpose statements for these “seventy weeks,” as presented in verse 24, to be fulfilled immediately upon the completion of these “seventy weeks,” or not? They are, or the 70 weeks becomes meaningless. Any attempt to split the weeks nullifies the prophecy. As the prophesy concerns Messiah - Jesus - the time for fulfilment is time of Jesus' ministry, death & resurrection. 70 weeks takes us to about 35 AD. Clearly the saving work of Messiah is detailed in verse 24, as it is in Isaiah 53, & in the New Covenant Scriptures.
4. What are the meanings for each of these six-fold purpose statements?
These specifically concern the saving work of Jesus at Calvary. All believers can thank God for that wonderful provision for our salvation - see e.g. Isaiah 53. We do have "everlasting righteousness" , and all the promises & prophecies focus on Messiah. His coming, & all his saving work was the fulfilment of prophecy, as he explained on the Emmaus road & to the Apostles in Luke 24.
and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy.
That applies to Jesus, fulfilling & being the end of prophecy & being anointed by the Holy Spirit for his ministry.
25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.
Now Gabriel gives further details. The 69 weeks will be troublous times but Jerusalem will be rebuilt ready for Messiah the Prince to come.
5. What specific event in Jesus Christ’s earthly ministry is intended to be referenced by the phrase, “unto the Messiah the Prince,” as presented in verse 25?
That takes us to Jesus' baptism, when he was anointed by the Holy Spirit for his ministry.
26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.
6. What is the specific timing for the events of verse 26 – (1) immediately at the close of the sixty-ninth “week,” (2) after the sixty-ninth “week,” but before the start of the seventieth week (that is – between the sixty-ninth “week” and seventieth “week,” creating a separation of time between the sixty-ninth “week” and seventieth “week”), (3) during the seventieth “week,” or (4) during and/or after the seventieth “week”?
That is best answered by looking at the fulfilment of the prophecy in the Gospels & Acts. "After" is not defined, but it is clear that the crucifixion is prophesied, so "cut off" is during the 70th week, as Jesus' earthly ministry lasted around 3 years. We know also from Jesus' Olivet prophecy & the warnings in Acts that the consequences of rejected Messiah were to be destruction of the city & sanctuary. That destruction did not happen during the time of Acts, so must be after the 70th week, with is also after the 69th week. 7. Who specifically are the people of the prince that shall come?
8. Who specifically is the prince that shall come?The consequence of rejection is the destruction, so the Roman armies are intended the prince being either the army commander, or the emperor.
27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.
9. Who specifically is the “he” of verse 29?
10. What specifically is “the covenant” that the “he” of verse 29 confirms with the “many”?
11. Who specifically are the “many” of verse 29, with whom the “he” of the verse will confirm this covenant?
12. What does the phrase “for one week” mean in relation to to the confirming of this covenant that the “he” of the verse makes with the “many” of the verse?
13. What does it mean for the “he” of the verse to “cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease”?
14. What is the meaning of the phrase, “for the overspreading of abominations”?
15. To what does the phrase, “the consummation,” refer?
I'll take these together. The subject of the whole passage is the Messiah, & his saving work. Daniel is concerned with God's covenant & Israel's failure to keep it. Dan. 9:4-5 Jesus was born under the old covenant in order to keep it to perfection & so redeem Israel. I recommend reading the songs of Mary, Zechariah, the angels & Simeon to see the way he was to honour the covenant for his people: Luke 1:68-79
Every aspect of the old covenant required sacrifice. Jesus was the final sacrifice, in the midst of the 70th week, after which all animal sacrifices were worthless. They didn't stop, even though the temple veil was rent top to bottom. Seems they just mended it & carried on with the sacrifices, which, offered in defiance of God were abominations. See Isaiah 1. Jesus was busy during his ministry confirming the covenant with as many as received him, and for the remainder of the 70th week his Apostles were preaching the Gospel, whereby all the blessings of Dan. 9:24 were received. Many thousands of the repentant Jews, including priests, responded to the Gospel, all round the Roman empire They recognised the fulfilment of prophecy in Jesus. Acts 3:18-26
Sadly, the Jewish leaders persistently rejected their Messiah, to the extent that they were denounced as "uncircumcised" by the Holy Spirit speaking through Stephen. Acts 7:51
In the context, the "consummation" is the AD 70 destruction, when the wrath of God was poured out on those who rejected first their Messiah, then the Gospel of salvation through his saving work. That is according to many prophecies, including Deut. 18:18-19 Mal. 4:5-6 Acts 3:22-23 That destruction effectively ended (sealed up) the Old Covenant prophecies concerning Israel. Jesus gave them & us the New Covenant in his blood, which Jeremiah speaks of in Jer. 31.
Happily that dreadful consummation is not God's last word to Israel, though it was to the generation "this generation" that rejected him. The Gospel is freely available to every repentance sinner, including the Jews & will be until Jesus returns.
9 After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands; 10 And cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to our God which sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb. (Rev. 7)
16 I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star. 17 And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely. (Rev. 22)