Jacob's trouble is often taught as a feature of the yet future tribulation, when Israel will suffer for the purpose of salvation.
God was done dealing with the Jews as a nation by the end of Acts. When He's done dealing with the Gentiles, is when the times of the Gentiles will be complete and He'll begin dealing with the Jew in the time of Jacob's trouble. That is when all those things that follow Revelation 15:1 begin to come to pass; the things that there are no biblical or historical evidence that they ever happened in all of history let alone 70 A.D.
Is the trouble in the time of Esther the proper fulfilment of that prophecy?
Est 3:13 And the letters were sent by posts into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, [even] upon the thirteenth [day] of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and [to take] the spoil of them for a prey.
Est 9:21 To stablish [this] among them, that they should keep the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and the fifteenth day of the same, yearly,
22 As the days wherein the Jews rested from their enemies, and the month which was turned unto them from sorrow to joy, and from mourning into a good day: that they should make them days of feasting and joy, and of sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor.
Ezra & Nehemiah are among those who benefited from the resultant good will to the Jews.